About the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)
the DVD of Conscience and the Constitution, learn more about
the actions of the wartime Japanese American Citizens League, and its
2002 apology to the Heart Mountain resisters.
Masaoka audio interview
Mike Masaoka's rebuttal to critics
The Lim Report
"The JACL Apologizes"
Masaoka audio interview
the DVD to hear Masaoka's comments on JACL informing, his memos to the
government, test cases, the resisters, and his legacy.
of additional excerpts from audio interview (to come)
the April 6, 1942 memo to the WRA [82
The handwritten notes exist on the original document in the National
Archives, suggesting that they are written in the hand of the recipient
of this memo, or by one of his staff.
the January 14, 1943 memo to the
Masaoka's rebuttal to critics
Mike Masaoka's closing peoration at the 1982 JACL National Convention
in Los Angeles was first transcibed by editor Dwight Chuman and published
on Feb. 17, 1983 in the Rafu Shimpo newspaper.
the text of Mike Masaoka's rebuttal to
Background on JACL's handling of the Tule Lake renunciants
Minutes of 1946 JACL National
Board meeting [pdf]
Role of civil
rights attorney Wayne Collins
History of Tule Lake Segregation
Center and renunciants
regained their citizenship primarily due to the heroic but little-known
efforts of Wayne Mortimer Collins, a civil
rights attorney who convinced the federal courts that the renunciants citizenship
should be restored because the renunciations took place under extreme duress
and amidst impossibly difficult circumstances. Collins wound up fighting
the Department of Justice over 20 years to help former renunciants
citizenship. Congress and President Nixon repealed the renunciation law
renunciants, along with draft resisters, were
condemned at the 1946 National JACL convention, which led to
decades of them being marginalized for wartime choices. Consequently,
speak little about their life in the Segregation Center, a topic
filled with powerful feelings of stigma and shame."
Web site has been one of the two places on the Internet where you can
download an uncensored copy of the research
report that details the JACL's role of cooperation and collaboration
with government exclusion orders in 1942.
It was prepared for the JACL's Presidential
Select Committee on JACL Resolution #7, submitted
in 1990 by San Francisco attorney and researcher Deborah K. Lim. I
wrote in 1990 about how JACL commissioned the report, then tried to bury
it when they saw the direction it was taking ("Report
Says Wartime JACL Leaders Collaborated").
It is this report that Frank
Emi references on the DVD ("The JACL Apologizes") in his
remarks to the 2002 JACL apology ceremony, where he challenges the organization
to address the broader question of wartime collaboration even as the group
was apologizing to Emi and others for its suppression of wartime resistance.
and the Constitution closes with the tag, "In July 2000, the
national Japanese American Citizens League voted to apologize for its
suppression of wartime resistance. Several JACL old-timers walked out
years later, on
Saturday, May 11, 2002, about 300 people filled the gym at the San
Francisco Japanese American Community and Cultural Center for the "Nisei
Resisters of Conscience of World War II Recognition and Reconciliation
happened there is told in the DVD featurettte, "The JACL Apologizes."
more about the event, read the full speeches presented by Floyd Mori,
Frank Emi, and Yosh Kuromiya, and see the archived news coverage.
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January 8, 2012